Research Projects

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List of projects

  1. Risk Perception and Decision Making Under Risk and Ambiguity in the U.S.A., Poland, P.R. China, and Hong Kong

  2. Environmentally Conscious Manufacturing: Aqueous Surfactant Solutions as Replacements for Volatile Organic Solvents in Chemical Manufacture

  3. Catalytic Oxidation of Chlorofluorocarbons and Related Compounds for Pollution Abatement Applications

  4. The Direct Determination of Rate Constants and Branching Ratios for Methylperoxy Reactions Under Atmospherically Relevant Conditions

  5. Low Cost, Nano-Crystalline Sensors, for Real-Time Monitoring of Carbon Monoxide and Volatile Organic Compounds

  6. U.S.-Swiss Cooperative Research: Infinite Horizon Dynamic Games and Urban Economic/Air Pollution

  7. Exploring Nighttime Tropospheric Chemistry via Hydrocarbon Measurements


Project Details

Risk Perception and Decision Making Under Risk and Ambiguity in the U.S.A., Poland, P.R. China, and Hong Kong

NSF Org

SES

Latest Amendment Date January 31, 1996

Award Number

9696073

Award Instrument

Standard Grant

Program Manager

Robin A. Cantor

Start Date

    September 1, 1995

Expires

    February 29, 1996 (Estimated)
Expected Total Amount     $7900 (Estimated)

Investigator

Elke U. Weber (Principal Investigator current)
Christopher Hsee (Co-Principal Investigator current)

Sponsor

Ohio State Univ Res Fdn
1960 Kenny Rd
Columbus, OH 432101016 614/292-3732

Abstract:
The PIs propose to investigate risk perception and decisions under risk, ambiguity and uncertainty in the United States, Poland, Hong Kong, and the People s Republic of China. The investigation will occur at two different levels. First, at the general cultural level, an analysis of proverbs and movies will be performed in order to determine the overall cultural attitude toward risk and the components of decision making, such as probability, outcomes, or dread. Second, at a specific behavioral level, the PIs will examine managerial decision tasks. This portion of the research will include the examination of personality traits and situational factors which influence risk perception and decision making. Scenarios will be included that cover a broad range of risk and decision tasks, including financial, social, and political situations.

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Environmentally Conscious Manufacturing: Aqueous Surfactant Solutions as Replacements for Volatile Organic Solvents in Chemical Manufacture

NSF Org

CTS

Latest Amendment Date

August 12, 1997

Award Number

9528627

Award Instrument

Continuing grant

Program Manager

Robert M. Wellek

Start Date

September 15, 1995

Expires

August 31, 1998 (Estimated)
Expected Total Amount $240000 (Estimated)

Investigator

James F. Rathman, rathman.1@osu.edu (Principal Investigator current)

Sponsor

Ohio State Univ Res Fdn
1960 Kenny Rd
Columbus, OH 432101016 614/292-3732

Abstract
Reduced utilization of hazardous organic solvents in industry is necessary to minimize the environmental impact of chemical manufacturing processes. In the past, pollution control was largely achieved by separation techniques designed to remove hazardous materials from waste streams prior to their release into the environment. Recently the emphasis has switched to source reduction as the optimum pollution control strategy, wherein non-hazardous materials are used in place of hazardous components. The goal of the proposed research is to evaluate aqueous surfactant solutions as replacements for organic solvents in synthesis processes of interest to the photographic, pharmaceutical, polymer, and petrochemical industries. The catalytic effect of surfactant micelles on a wide variety of reactions is well-known. Despite the wealth of fundamental knowledge, primarily because kinetic data alone are not sufficient for successfully replacing organic solvents with aqueous surfactant solutions in existing processes. For example, premixing of components via emulsification and separation of products after reaction are two additional areas that must be addressed. In order for micellar catalysis to be economically viable, acceptably high production rates must be achieved, selectivity of the desired product must be attained, and methods of separating products and surfactants must be identified. High production rates require maximizing solubilization of lipophilic reactants in aqueous media, as well as preparation and handling of two-phase water-continuous emulsions. Surfactant mixtures, which often exhibit synergistic solubilization capacities relative to single surfactant systems, will be investigated. Reaction rates and product yields will be investigated for alkylation reactions of phenols, aromatic amines, and amino phenols. Methods of separating the desired product from the post-reaction solution, and methods of recovering the su rfactant for recycle, will be developed and evaluated. Finally, a bench-scale semi-batch process will be designed and constructed to demonstrate the feasibility of the proposed technology. This project will be performed in collaboration with the Chemicals Developed Division of the Eastman Kodak Company. The nature of he collaboration will include working closely with industrial scientists and engineers to define reaction systems of interest and possible avenues of implementing new methods that minimize the impact of production processes on the environment. The principal investigator and student researchers will visit Eastman Kodak facilities to become familiar with current industrial methods and to consult with industrial experts on various phases of the project. None of the research performed in this project will be proprietary. By studying micelar catalysis in surfactant mixtures from a broader perspective than has been done previously, the proposed research will enable industries to implement this technology with minimum effort and expense. Results of this project will provide the understanding necessary to bridge the gap between current fundamental knowledge of reaction kinetics and the actual application of this promising technology in industrial processes.

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Catalytic Oxidation of Chlorofluorocarbons and Related Compounds for Pollution Abatement Applications

NSF Org

DMI
Latest Amendment Date November 21, 1995

Award Number

9460097

Award Instrument

Standard Grant

Program Manager

Kesh S. Narayanan

Start Date

February 1, 1995

Expires

March 31, 1996 (Estimated)

Expected Total Amount

$71282 (Estimated)

Investigator

Joseph A. Rossin (Principal Investigator current)

Sponsor                            Guild Associates Inc
                                           5750 Shier-Rings Road
                                           Dublin, OH 430161234 614/798-8215

Abstract
This Small Business Innovative Research Phase I project investigates the feasibility of using a novel catalyst to control the release of CFCs (chlorofluorocarbons) and related compounds into the environment. The release of CFCs and related compounds is believed to play a significant role in the decline in the earth's ozone layer. Although the production of CFCs is currently being phased out, large quantities already exist and must be dealt with. Compounds intended to replace CFCs, which include HFC (hydrofluorocarbons) and HCFCs (hydrochlorofluorocarbons), also possess ozone-depleting properties. As a result, the release of these compounds must also be controlled. Catalytic oxidation is a technology well suited for controlling vapor phase emissions. However, catalysts capable of oxidizing CFCs have deactivated rapidly, due primarily to materials degradation in the harsh acid gas environment. A novel catalyst was recently identified which was capable of oxidizing fluorine containing organic molecules without loss of catalytic activity. The objective of this Phase I proposal is to evaluate this novel catalyst for its ability to oxidatively destroy CFCs and related compounds in streams of air. To meet this objective, the catalyst will be evaluated for reactivity and performance stability against selected CFCs, HFCs, and HCFCs. Tests will be conducted over a wide range of process conditions so that the performance envelope of the catalyst may be established. Based on performance data obtained to date, it is anticipated that the catalyst will oxidize the above compounds without loss of catalytic

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The Direct Determination of Rate Constants and Branching Ratios for Methylperoxy Reactions Under Atmospherically Relevant Conditions

NSF Org

         ATM
Latest Amendment Date          March 20, 2001

Award Number

         0196205

Award Instrument

         Standard Grant

Program Manager

        Anne-Marie Schmoltner

Start Date

June 1, 2001

Expires

April 30, 2003 (Estimated)

Expected Total Amount

$180980 (Estimated)

Investigator

Matthew J. Elrod, matthew.elrod@oberlin.edu (Principal Investigator current)

Sponsor                                                       Oberlin College
                                                                        Oberlin, OH 44074 440/775-8461

Abstract
This award was made under the NSF CAREER program and is supported jointly by the Atmospheric Chemistry and Experimental Physical Chemistry Programs. The Research component of this program consists of of experimental chemical kinetics measurements that address the role of the methyl peroxy radical in tropospheric and stratospheric processes, with a focus on reactions that may affect ozone destruction and production cycles. A secondary objective is to further the development of the chemical ionization  mass spectrometry(CIMS) technique as a promising new method for both laboratory and field-detection of atmospheric species. The turbulent flow-CIMS method will be used to measure rates at temperature and pressure conditions characteristic of the troposphere and the lower stratosphere. In addition, sensitive and selective chemical ionization schemes will be developed for measurements at low absolute concentrations and for unambiguous monitoring of reactants and products. The primary objective of the education plan is to enhance the

quality of Hope College's chemistry program through a systematic implementation of innovative teaching techniques and by introducing environmental chemistry topics in both the classroom and the undergraduate research setting. Collaborative learning techniques will be used, and research-related case studies will be incorporated into the teaching.

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Low Cost, Nano-Crystalline Sensors, for Real-Time Monitoring of Carbon Monoxide and Volatile Organic Compounds

NSF Org : DMI 

Award Number: 0091388 

Grant Prgm Manager: Winslow L. Sargeant  

Start Date : March 1, 2001 

Expires : January 31, 2003 (Estimated) 

Expected Total Amt. : $492908 (Estimated) 

Investigator: Nicholas J. Smilanich Nsmilanich@aol.com (Principal Investigator current) 

                       Chung-Chiun Liu (Co-Principal Investigator current) 

Sponsor : Sensor Development Corp.

                  3449 Delmar Drive Rocky River,

                  OH 44116 440/895-9520 

Abstract 

This Small Business Technology Transfer Research (STTR) Phase II project will develop a fully functional, cost-effective, prototype sensor for carbon monoxide and volatile organic contaminants in air. Phase I results suggest that a sensor array based on catalyst-doped, nano-crystalline metal oxide films will provide a marked improvement in detection of contaminants, such as formaldehyde, and thereby upgrade control of indoor air quality. Phase II will develop this sensor technology with objectives of long-term use, low cost, high sensitivity, and sufficient selectivity for commercial applications. 

These applications include indoor air quality monitoring, environmental air monitoring, oil refining, chemical manufacturing,  automotive emission control systems, and industrial process


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