Dr. Cyndee L. Gruden, Ph.D., PE

University of Toledo

Department of Civil Engineering
Mail Stop 307
3024 Nitschke Hall
University of Toledo
Toledo, OH  43606
Phone: 419-530-8128
fax: (419) 530-8116

E-mail: cyndee.gruden@eng.utoledo.edu



Postdoc Researcher: Environmental Water Resources Eng., University of Michigan (2001-2003)

Ph.D.:  Civil Engineering, Univ. of Colorado (2000)

M.S.:  Civil Engineering, Univ. of New Hampshire (1993)

B.S.:  Civil Engineering, Univ. of New Hampshire (1991)



Licensed Professional Engineer, State of New Hampshire #9516. August 1997


Research Interests

My current research interests include sediment remediation and restoration with an emphasis on in situ approaches as a viable alternative to dredging.  In addition, our research focus continues to be on microbial sensing (i.e., quantification, physiological assessment, identification) in environmental systems for comprehension and optimization of engineered and natural biological processes.


Refereed Journal Publications

Wang, Hui, J. Chaffin, T. Bridgeman, and C. Gruden. October 2009. “Detection and Quantification of Microcystis Spp. And Microcystin-LR in Western Lake Erie during the Summer of 2007.”  Water Science and Technology. 60(7): 1837-1846.


Gorey C., I. Escobar, C. Gruden, and C. Guang. September 2009. “Development of Smart Membrane with Microbial Monitoring Capabilities.” Desalination. 248: 99-105.


Wang, Q., I. Kassem, V. Sigler, and C. Gruden. 2009. “The Short Term Effect of Capping on the Microbial Communities in Contaminated Sediments.”  Water Environment Research. 8(41): 441-449.


Gorey, C., I. Escobar, C. Gruden, M. Coleman, O. Mileyeva-Biebesheimer. 2008. “Development of Smart Membrane Filters for Microbial Sensing” Separation Science & Technology. 43: 4056-4074.


Foley, M., V. Sigler, and C. Gruden. 2008. “A Multiphasic Characterization of the Impact of Acetochlor on Freshwater Bacteria CommunitiesISME Journal. 2(1):56-66.


Kheireddine, E.-B., C. Gruden, X. Huang. 2007. “Magnetic Glyco-nanoparticles: a Unique Tool for Rapid Pathogen Detection, De-contamination and Strain Identification.” Journal of American Chemical Society. 129(44): 13392-13393.


Gruden, C.L., McCulloch, R., Towey, T., Wolfe, J., and Adriaens, P. 2007. “Hydrogen-based Activity Enhancement in Sediment Cultures and Intact Sediments.” Environmental Engineering and Science. 24(5): 696-706.


Chang, S.C., Anderson, T., Bahrman, S., Gruden, C.L., Khijniak, A.I., and Adriaens, P. 2005. “Comparing Recovering Efficiency of Immunomagnetic Separation and Centrifugation of Mycobacteria in Metalworking Fluids.” Journal of Industrial Microbiology and Biotechnology. 32: 629-638. 


Chang, S.C., Rihana, A., Bahrman, S., Gruden, C.L., Khijniak, A.I., Skerlos, S.J., and Adriaens, P. 2004 “Flow Cytometric Detection and Quantification of Mycobacteria in Metalworking Fluids.” International Biodeterioration and Biodegradation.  54: 105-112.


Gruden, C.L., Khijniak, A., Skerlos, S., and Adriaens, P. 2004. “Micro-Flow Cytometry for Environmental and Industrial Applications: Integrating Distributed Microbial Sensing in Sustainable Systems Engineering.” FEMS Microbiology Ecology. 49(1): 37-49.


Gruden, C.L., Khijniak, A., and Adriaens, P. 2003. “Activity Assessment of Microorganisms Eluted from Sediment Using CTC (5-cyano-2,3-ditolyl tetrazolium chloride): A Quantitative Comparison of Flow Cytometry to Epifluorescent Microscopy” Journal of Microbiological Methods. 55 (3): 865-874.


Gruden, C.L., Fevig, S., Abu-Dalo, M., and Hernandez, M. 2003. “CTC (5-cyano-2,3-ditolyl tetrazolium chloride) reduction in a mesophilic anaerobic digester: measuring redox behavior, differentiating abiotic reduction, and comparing FISH response as an activity indicator” Journal of Microbiological Methods.  52(1): 59-68.


Gruden, C.L. and Hernandez, M. 2002. “Anaerobic Digestion of Aircraft Deicing Fluid Wastes: Interactions and Toxicity of Corrosion Inhibitors and Surfactants” Water Environment Research. 74(2): 149-158.

bullet Gruden, C.L., Dow, S.M., and Hernandez, M. 2001. “Fate and Toxic Effects of Corrosion Inhibitors in Anaerobic Environments” Water Environment Research. 73(1): 72-79.
Proceedings Papers
bullet FMileyeva-Biebesheimer, O., Wang, Q, Spongberg, A., and Gruden, C. June 2005.. “Accelerating Degradation of PCBs in Freshwater Sediments” 8th Annual Battelle International On-Site and In Situ Bioremediation Conference, Baltimore, MD
bullet Gruden, C., Apul, D., and Diaz, M. 2006. “Teaching concepts on softening: Observations from active versus passive instruction in an undergraduate and a graduate level course.” Proceedings for the 113th Annual ASEE Conference & Exposition, June 18-21, Chicago, IL. Accepted.

Book Chapters 

bullet Gruden, C.L., Fu, Q.S., Barkovskii, A.L., Albrecht, I.D., Lynam, M.M., and Adriaens, P. 2003. “Dechlorination of Sediment Dioxins: Catalysts, Mechanisms, and Implications for Remedial Strategies and Dioxin Cycling” in Dehalogenation: Microbial Processes and Environmental Applications (Haggblom and Bossert, Eds.), Kluwer Academic Press, pp. 347-372.
bullet Adriaens, P., Gruden, C.L., and McCormick, M.L. 2003. “Biogeochemistry of Halogenated Hydrocarbons” In Treatise on Geochemistry, Vol 9:  Environmental Geochemistry (B. Sherwood Lollar, Ed.) Elsevier Ltd., New York, NY. 


bullet CIVE 1170: Fluid Mechanics
bullet CIVE 3610: Water Supply and Treatment
bullet CIVE 3630: Wastewater Engineering
bullet CIVE 4750: Senior Design
bullet CIVE 4900/5900/8900: Advanced Biological Processes
bullet CIVE 5950: Workshop in Curriculum and Instruction
bullet CIVE 6900/8900: Environmental Research Methods

 Research Group: 

bullet Doctoral Students
bullet Qi Wang (graduated Dec 2007)
bullet Olya Mileyeva-Biebesheimer (exp graduation May 2010)
bullet Amr Zaky (exp graduation May 2010)

bullet Master’s Students
bullet Sheveta Sharma, MS Civil Engineering, (Aug 2005)
bullet Olya Mileyeva-Biebesheimer, MS Civil Engineering, (Dec 2005)
bullet Meghan Foley, MS Civil Engineering, (May 2006)
bullet Venkata Atkuri, MS Chemical and Environmental Engineering, (Aug 2006)
bullet Chris Windnagle, MS Civil Engineering, (May 2008)
bullet Cai Guang, MS Civil Engineering, (Aug 2008)
bullet Hui Wang, MS Civil Engineering, (Aug 2008)
bullet Katie Puffenberger, MS Civil Engineering (exp May 2010)
bullet Erik Lange, MS Civil Engineering (exp May 2010)
bullet Amir Monahegh, MS Civil Engineering (exp Aug 2011)

bullet Undergraduate Student Researchers
bullet Meghan Foley, Laboratory Technician, Fall 2003 and Spring 2004
bullet Tiffany Ashenfelter, Laboratory Technician, Spring 2004
bullet Clifford Hanserd, Laboratory Technician, Summer 2004
bullet Jeremy Meade, Laboratory Technician, Fall 2005
bullet Nick Baer, Laboratory Technician, Spring 2006
bullet Peter Murphy, Laboratory Technician, Spring 2006
bullet Christina Corrigan, Honors Thesis Advisor, Spring 2007
bullet Todd Green, Independent Study on Water Softening, Spring 2007
bullet Natalie Bailey, Laboratory Technician, Spring 2007
bullet Lucas DeGarmo, Honors Thesis Advisor, Fall 2007
bullet Evan DiSanto, Honors Thesis Advisor, Spring 2008
bullet Adam Szabo, Independent Study on Rain Gardens, Spring 2008
bullet Michael McNeill, Undergraduate Research, Summer 2009




NSF - CBET "The role of extracellular polymeric substances of biofilm on pathogen disinfection in water distribution systems" 09/09 - 09/12; $255,438 (PI: Seo; Co-PI: Gruden).


Ohio Lake Erie Commission –LEPF “Sediment contribution to Lake Erie algal bloom” 6/08 – 6/09; $15,000 (PI: Cyndee Gruden).


EPA - Great Lake's National Program Office "Lake Erie Algal Source Tracking (LEAST)" 08/09-08/10; $101,304 (PI: Bridgeman; Co-PIs: Conroy, Winston, Kane, Mayer, Gruden, Kramer).


NSF – CBET “SGER: Nanoparticles in Personal Care Products and their Impact on Digester Energy Production” 08/15/08 – 07/31/09; $34,962 (PI: Cyndee Gruden).

bullet NSF – BIO “GK-12 Graduate Teaching Fellows in High School STEM Education:  An Environmental Science Learning Community at the Land-Lake Ecosystem Interface” 06/08 – 05/13; $2,400,000 (PI: Carol Stepien; Co-PIs: Tom Bridgeman, Timothy Fisher, Cyndee Gruden, Daryl Moorhead).



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